Lunenburg County was established on May 1, 1746, from Brunswick County. The county is named for the former Duchy of Brunswick-Lunenburg in Germany, because one of the titles also carried by Britain’s Hanoverian kings was Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg. It is nicknamed “The Old Free State” because during the buildup of the Civil War, it let Virginia know the county would break off if the state did not join The Confederacy.

Some arguably consider Lunenburg the home of powered flight, as Lunenburg is the birthplace of Lewis Archer Boswell (1834-1909) a pioneer of of powered flight.